Our studio guest, Dr. Marius Bauer, founder of the battery startup ESCO at the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) explains which unit in the battery is responsible for the charging processes. A battery management system (BMS) is an electronic component that has the task of protecting the entire battery from excessive charging and discharging currents, from operating temperatures that are too high or too low, and from charging and discharging voltages that are too high. A BMS thus controls the totality of all the individual cells in the battery pack. When fast-charging an electric car, for example, the BMS regulates the additional current flowing into the battery without irreparably damaging cells.
During charging, of course, no overvoltage may be reached, which would result in the battery undergoing internal, unwanted material changes (e.g. gas development, bursting of a cell).
Where is the BMS actually installed? Battery management systems are used in charge controllers. They exist as stand-alone devices (chargers) or are permanently installed in the battery-powered device - as in the e-car or smartphone.
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