Post-lithium batteries

Lithium-ion and metal hydride batteries are established systems that are currently being successfully employed for energy storage in electrically powered applications. In order to make future devices safer, less expensive, more sustainable, and more powerful, global research is looking for alternatives to the current systems. Lithium is supposed to be replaced by other elements which can also make bidirectional batteries possible. In order to attain this goal it is necessary for us to develop anew all the components of the battery and to acquire an understanding of the electrochemical processes. Of the four new types of batteries that are currently the object of international research, which are based on using magnesium, sodium, chloride, or fluoride as the charge carriers, two (the chloride-ion and fluoride-ion batteries) were first presented by HIU. HIU developed the electrolyte that is currently the best for use in a magnesium battery; this has also made it possible to build the first reversibly working magnesium-sulfur cells with extended cycles. With the exception of the sodium-ion battery, all of these systems have the potential of achieving markedly higher energy storage densities than the present lithium-ion batteries. HIU has played a pioneering role in these new fields of research.